1. Please register for our free white paper PDF downloads currently featuring Basics of Electric Heating Elements and frequently asked questions about cartridge heaters. The Basics of Electric Heating Elements reviews types, heat transfer and losses, basic heat equations, specific applications and example, as well as watt density. Frequently asked questions about cartridge heaters covers what a cartridge heater is, how they are made, how to get the most efficient heat transfer and long life, options, uses and terminations offered.


Technical Information


  • Wattage Calculation Formulas and Examples
    • Problem 1: Basic Heating and Heat Loss
    • Problem 2: Paraffin Melting
  • Guide for Heat Losses
  • Properties of Liquids and Gases
  • Properties of Metals
  • Properties of Non-Metallic Solids
  • Suggested Sheath Materials
  • Suggested Watt Densities
  • Technical – Empirical Guideline for Cartridge Heater life


Mathematical Conversions


  • Areas, Volume and Conversion factors
  • Circumferences and Areas of Circles
  • Inches to Millimeter
  • Sheath Temperatures vs. Watt Density of Electric Heaters in Air and Temperature Conversions


Miscellaneous Information


  • Current Carrying Capacity of Straight Nickel/Ribbon Nickel Chromium Wire
  • Guide to High Temperature Wire and Cable
  • Installation Instructions
  • Ohms Law and Wiring Diagrams
  • Stainless Steel Pipe Sizes/American Standard Taper Pipe Threads
    • Thermal Systems
    • Wire Gauge Size Equivalents